19. Authority To Classify:
a. TOP SECRET:
(1) Matter may be classified as TOP SECRET information only by or by authority of the Secretary, Under Secretary, or an Assistant Secretary of the Air Force; the Chief of Staff, USAF; commanders of major air commands and major subdivisions thereof; and commanders of numbered air forces. Subject to the limitations in (2) below, these authorities may designate in writing additional officers or key civilian employees under their command or jurisdiction to classify information as TOP SECRET.
(2) The delegation of authority to additional persons to assign information to the TOP SECRET category will be limited strictly to officers or officials occupying offices or staff or command positions of such nature that they are capable of evaluating the information from a national viewpoint and whose functional requirements are such that they must have the authority. (See paragraph 22 for the definition of the TOP SECRET category and the limitations regarding its use.)
b. SECRET. Matter may be classified as SECRET information only by or by authority of those named in a(1) above; commanders of air divisions, wings, groups, depots, or Air Force bases; chiefs of air missions; air attaches; or air observers. These authorities may designate in writing additional responsible officers or key civilian employees under their command or jurisdiction to classify information as SECRET, provided, however , that the designation of additional persons will be limited to the minimum necessary for the performance of assigned functions or duties. Also, the additional persons designated in accordance with a(1) above to classify information as TOP SECRET may classify information as SECRET.
c. CONFIDENTIAL. Matter maybe classified as CONFIDENTIAL by any commissioned officer or key civilian employee, subject to such restrictions as may be imposed by the commander of the headquarters or unit to which they are assigned. Restrictions should be imposed to limit the authority to classify as severely as is consistent with the orderly and expeditious transaction of official business.
d. Safeguarding of Information by Persons Not Authorized To Classify. Persons not authorized by this Regulation or designated by one of the authorities named above to classify information initially as TOP SECRET, SECRET, or CONFIDENTIAL, but who develop or initiate information which they have reason to believe requires a classification which they are not authorized to assign, will refer the information to proper authority for evaluation and decision. Tentative classification should be assigned by means of a marked cover or by other appropriate means to insure proper safeguarding of documents or other material and protection afforded thereto in the manner prescribed by this Regulation for that category of classified information into which it is believed to fall.
e. Exceptional Cases. When, in an exceptional case, a person or agency outside the Department of the Air Force not authorized to classify defense information originates information which is believed to require classification, such person or agency is required to protect that information in the manner prescribed by Executive Order 10501 for that category of classified defense information into which it is believed to fall, and transmit the information forthwith, under appropriate safeguards, to the department, agency, or person having both the authority to classify information and a direct official interest in the information (preferably, that department, agency, or person to which the information would be transmitted in the ordinary course of business), with a request that such department, agency, or person classify the information. Necessary action in connection with requests received by the Air Force will be taken by persons authorized to classify information under the provisions of this Regulation who are assigned to activities or offices having primary interest in the information.
f. Placement of Classification Markings. The placing of prescribed markings on newly prepared material in which information known to be classified TOP SECRET, SECRET, or CONFIDENTIAL has been copied, reproduced, or transcribed, or the placing of such markings on any material to conform with instructions issued by competent authority does not require authorization to classify information. All persons who copy, type, transcribe, photograph, or otherwise reproduce classified information will mark the resulting product with the proper defense classification markings as soon as the information is recorded, or insure that the product will be so marked by another person, except for waste material handled in accordance with paragraph 9f.
20. Responsibility for Classifying:
a. The assignment of information to a defense classification is a responsibility of command. Subject to all of the provisions of this Regulation and such other instructions as are issued by the Secretary of the Air Force or the Chief of Staff, USAF, concerning the classifying of specific information, commanders who originate information or who otherwise have primary interest therein (see paragraph 2n) are responsible for determining whether such information requires protection as classified information and the defense classification to be assigned, if protection is required. Within a headquarters, unless otherwise directed by the commander, the head of the office which has the primary interest in any information will determine the classification required therefor, coordinating with other interested offices whenever necessary. Commanders will prescribe specific procedures and control measures within their respective headquarters to insure that information is accorded timely review and that, if protection is required, the information is assigned to or marked with the proper classification.
b. If the recipient of information believes that its assigned classification is not sufficiently protective, he will safeguard it in accordance with the classification he deems appropriate and promptly submit his reasons for such belief through proper channels to the attention of the appropriate classifying authority with a recommendation for upgrading, unless he is authorized to upgrade the information on his own initiative. When information is upgraded, action will be taken promptly in accordance with paragraph 26e to notify all addressees to whom the material was originally transmitted. Similar action will be taken if the recipient of unclassified material believes that it should be classified.
21. Use of Lowest Consistent Classification:
a. Official information will be assigned the lowest defense classification consistent with its proper protection in order to avoid depreciation of the importance of correctly classified information, to avoid unnecessary expense and delay in the handling and transmission of documents and other material, and to preserve the integrity of the individual defense classifications. Unnecessary classification and overclassification will be scrupulously avoided.
b. If unavoidable operational or administrative requirements for the use of information are such that they could not be met if the information is assigned to a particular defense classification, due to the limiting security measures applicable to such particular classification, a lower defense classification will be considered for the information.
c. In any case in which the recipient of classified matter believes that security considerations fail to support fully the assigned classification on the basis of the information involved, the category definition of the assigned classification, and the prescribed rules for classifying information, he will as soon as practicable submit his reasons for such belief through proper channels to the attention of the appropriate classifying authority with a recommendation for change or cancellation of the classification, unless he is authorized to make the change on his own initiative. The information will be safeguarded as required for its assigned classification until downgrading action has been accomplished in accordance with paragraph 26. This applies equally to information originated by agencies other than the Air Force, including joint and interdepartmental activities, as well as to Air Force information.
d. The responsible authority, at the time he signs or approves any document bearing a defense classification, will determine whether the classification affixed is proper in the light of the provisions of this Regulation. If security considerations fail to support fully the assigned classification, he will direct the assignment of a lower classification, if he is authorized to do so, or initiate appropriate action with a view to recommending that the responsible classifying authority assign a lower classification to the information involved.
22. TOP SECRET Matter. The use of the classification TOP SECRET will be limited to defense information or material which requires the highest degree of protection. The TOP SECRET classification will be applied only to that information or material the defense aspect of which is paramount, and the unauthorized disclosure of which could result in exceptionally grave damage to the Nation, such as:
a. Leading to a definite break in diplomatic relations affecting the defense of the United States, an armed attack against the United States or its Allies, a war, or
b. The compromise of military or defense plans, or intelligence operations, or scientific or technological developments vital to the national defense.
23. SECRET Matter. The use of the classification SECRET will be limited to defense information or material the unauthorized disclosure of which could result in serious damage to the Nation such as:
a. Jeopardizing the international relations of the United States.
b. Endangering the effectiveness of a program or policy of vital importance to the national defense.
c. Compromising important military or defense plans, or scientific or technological developments important to national defense.
d. Revealing important intelligence operations.
24. CONFIDENTIAL Matter:
a The use of the classification CONFIDENTIAL will be limited to defense information material the unauthorized disclosure of which could be prejudicial to the defense interests of the Nation, such as:
(1) Personnel security investigations and other investigations which require protection against unauthorized disclosure.
(2) Operational and battle reports which contain information of value to the enemy.
(3) Intelligence reports.
(4) Military radio frequency and call sign allocations of special significance or those which are changed frequently for security reasons.
(5) Devices and material relating to communications security.
(6) Information which indicates strength of our troops, air and naval forces in U. S. and oversea areas, identity or composition of units, or quantity of specific items of equipment pertaining thereto.
(7) Documents and manuals containing technical information used for training, maintenance, and inspection of classified munitions of war.
(8) Operational and tactical doctrine.
(9) Research, development, production, and procurement of munitions of war.
(10) Mobilization plans.
(11) Matters and documents of a personal and disciplinary nature, the disclosure of which could be prejudicial to discipline and morale of the Armed Forces.
(12) Documents used in connection with procurement, selection, and promotion of military personnel, the disclosure of which could violate the integrity of the competitive system.
b. Official information of the type described in a(11) and (12) above will be classified as CONFIDENTIAL only if in fact the unauthorized disclosure of such information could be prejudicial to the defense interests of the Nation. If such information is not strictly defense information but nevertheless requires protection, it will be safeguarded by means other than assigning to it the classification CONFIDENTIAL as defined in a above.
25. Rules for Classifying:
a. According to Content. Each document or other item, including extracts from classified documents except messages, will be classified according to its own content and not necessarily according to its relationship to another document or item. (See paragraph 52 for special conditions in connection with classifying messages for purposes of cryptographic security.) Each military letter and indorsement appended thereto will be classified according to its own content, except that the classification of the last indorsement in the series will always be at least as high as that of the highest classified preceding element (indorsement, basic letter, or inclosure) on the same basis as a letter of transmittal referred to in f below.
b. Reason for Classification:
(1) Whenever practicable, originators of classified documents should include a notation or statement thereon or in the text showing the reason for the assigned classification of the document or elements thereof for the guidance of recipients in handling the information involved and for future guidance concerning downgrading and declassification. Except in correspondence addressed outside the Air Force, references may be made by originators of information to the pertinent subparagraphs of paragraphs 22, 23, or 24 of this Regulation, if specifically applicable. If the classification is assigned by the originator of a document to conform with the classification of information extracted or otherwise taken from another document, or to conform with the classification assigned by competent authority to information furnished by oral means, the fact should be stated. Indorsements and letters of transmittal should contain the notation or statement unless a provision is included therein for automatic declassification.
(2) Every effort will be made to indicate within a document the classification of individual paragraphs. Whenever possible, all paragraphs that contain information which requires a document to be classified SECRET or TOP SECRET will be specifically identified.
(3) Commanders may require that record copies of classified matter originated within their respective headquarters, especially documents in the TOP SECRET or SECRET category, show the reason for the classification if an explanation is not included in the text. An appropriate notation or statement would be of value to approving authorities in reviewing the security aspects of the material. Commanders may also require that record copies of classified matter reflect the name of the person responsible for the classification.
c. Assigned Subject:
(1) Except as indicated below, the assigned subject of classified material originating in the Air Force will include as the first word, in parentheses, the classification of the subject or, if the subject standing alone does not require classification, the word "unclassified" will be used.
(2) The notation referred to in (1) above need not be included if a statement is made in the document involved as to the classification of the assigned subject or, as in the case of letters of transmittal, a statement is made indicating that the document, standing alone, is not classified.
d. References to Classified Documents. Correspondence, receipts, or returns, and reports of possession, transfer, or destruction need not be classified if reference therein to classified documents is made by file number, date, and subject, provided that the subject used does not contain information which is classified. If the subject contains classified information, a short title will be used for the subject. References to classified material which do not reveal classified defense information will not be classified. (For additional instructions regarding messages, see paragraph 52.)
e. Single Classification. A document, product, or substance will bear a classification at least as high as that of its highest classified component. Individual pages, basic letter, indorsements, paragraphs, sections, or components may bear a different classification, or not be classified, but the document or other item will bear only one overall classification.
f. Group of Documents. The classification of a file or group of physically connected documents will be at least as high as that of the highest classified document therein. (See paragraph 27b(6) regarding marking.) A letter of transmittal will he graded at least as high as its highest classified inclosure. Documents separated from the file or group will be handled in accordance with their individual classification if they contain classified information.
g. Notation for Automatic Downgrading. Whenever practicable, classifying officials will place a notation on a document (except messages) or in its text that upon the happening of a specified event or the passage of a named date, or upon removal of classified inclosures, the classification of the document or items therein will be downgraded or canceled without reference to the originating or other authority. Letters of transmittal, whenever appropriate, always will be so marked.
Example (1) "When Incl 1 is withdrawn or not attached, the classification of CONFIDENTIAL on this (letter) (correspondence) (Indorsement) will be canceled."
Example (2) "When Incls 2 and 3 are withdrawn or not attached, the classification of SECRET on this correspondence will be changed to CONFIDENTIAL."
Example (3) "On the date of departure of the above-named unit from its present station for its new station, the classification of information regarding the new location of the unit will be canceled."
26. Changes in Classification:
a. Authority. The authority making the original classification, the authority that has succeeded or assumed the functions of the original authority which no longer exists, or higher authority within the same chain of command, may cancel or change the classification of a document or article of materiel.
b. Additional Authority of Chief of Staff, USAF. The Chief of Staff, USAF, is the "higher authority" within the meaning of a above with respect to classified matter which was classified under the following conditions:
(1) In a theater of operation on or before 2 September 1945 and is of primary interest to the Department of the Air Force.
(2) In an oversea command or headquarters subsequent to 2 September 1945, provided that the information concerns only Army Air Forces or U. S. Air Force units, or technical reports on Army Air Forces or U. S. Air Force equipment.
(3) By the Commanding General, Army Air Forces, or by his authority, or by an authority subordinate to him.
(1) Designation of Persons. Commanders will authorize in writing, by name or position, such officers or key civilian employees within their headquarters or unit as they deem necessary to declassify or downgrade documents and other information originally classified within, or which are of primary interest to their respective headquarters or units.
Individuals authorized to change or cancel the classification of a
document will, when taking such action, write or stamp on the cover or
first page thereof, and such other pages as may be necessary, the
following: "Classification canceled (or changed to ______________
(3) Materiel. Authorities listed in a above may change or cancel the classification of materiel by letter of instruction to all offices or personnel concerned.
d. Special Provisions Regarding Downgrading:
(1) Continuous Review of Classification. It is the responsibility and obligation of every commander or other person exercising similar authority to keep classified information in his custody or of primary interest to him constantly under review and to initiate action toward downgrading or declassification as soon as conditions warrant. The commander will designate persons to review continuously classified material originated within his headquarters for the purpose of declassifying or downgrading it whenever national defense considerations permit, and for receiving and acting on requests for such review from all sources, including requests for upgrading.
(2) Coordination. Documents affecting only the headquarters or office of origin, or which contain information of primary interest to only one headquarters or office, will be downgraded or declassified by that headquarters or office without reference to other authority. If a document contains information affecting the interests of two or more headquarters or offices, the one desiring to downgrade or declassify the document will consult the others and attempt to reach an agreement. The authority having primary interest in the document as a whole, so far as the Air Force is concerned, will assume the responsibility for coordinating with all other agencies within or outside the Department of the Air Force interested in portions thereof, and will downgrade or declassify the document as agreed upon. The downgrading, or declassification of extracts from or paraphrases of classified documents will also require the consent of the appropriate classifying authority unless the activity making such extracts knows positively that they warrant a classification lower than that of the document from which extracted, or that they are not classified.
(3) Disagreements. When the interests of two or more headquarters or offices are involved in the downgrading or declassification of a document and no agreement can be reached, the matter will be referred for decision through military channels to the lowest superior common to the disagreeing agencies.
(4) Material Officially Transferred. In the case of material transferred by or pursuant to statute or Executive order from any department or agency of Government to the Department of the Air Force for Air Force use and as part of its official files or property, as distinguished from transfers merely for the purposes of storage, Air Force activities having primary interest in the material are deemed to be the classifying authority for all purposes under this regulation including declassification and downgrading.
(5) Material Not Officially Transferred. When the Department of the Air Force has in its possession any classified material which has become five (5) years old, and
(a) It appears that such material originated in an agency which has since become defunct and whose files and other property have not been officially transferred to another department or agency within the meaning of (4) above, or
(b) It appears that it is impossible for the Air Force to identify the originating agency, and
(c) A review of the material indicates that it should be downgraded or declassified,
Air Force activities having primary interest in the material are authorized to declassify or downgrade such material. If it appears probable that another department or agency may have a substantial interest in whether the classification of any particular information should be maintained, the Air Force will not exercise the authority conferred by this subparagraph, except with the consent of the other department or agency, until thirty (30) days after it has notified such other department or agency of the nature of the material and its intention to declassify or downgrade the same. During such thirty-day period the other department or agency may, if it so desires, express its objections to declassifying or downgrading the particular material, but the authority to make the ultimate decision will reside in the Air Force activity having primary interest in the material.
(6) Cryptographed Messages:
(a) Paraphrase Not Required. Messages so marked may he downgraded to CONFIDENTIAL, without paraphrasing, by the proper authority when the subject matter permits. Such messages may be declassified, when appropriate, by removing the external date-time group (DTG) and all internal references to other messages by DTG. For identification purposes, the day, month, and year may be affixed and the internal reference or cite number retained.
(b) Paraphrase Required. Messages so marked may be downgraded to CONFIDENTIAL without paraphrasing; however, declassification, when appropriate, will necessitate proper paraphrasing of the text in addition to the removal of the DTG and all internal references to other messages by DTG. Identification Procedures may be utilized as indicated above.
e. Notice of Change or Cancellation of Classification:
(1) The authority that changes or cancels the classification of a document or other item will notify all addressees to whom the material was originally transmitted. If the document or other item is widely held within the Department of the Air Force or other departments, a request will be forwarded by the authority making the change to the Chief of Staff, USAF, through military channels, for announcement of the action taken in an appropriate publication.
(2) When a nonregistered classified document bearing a restriction on reproduction is downgraded or declassified, the notification or announcement of downgrading or declassification will include instructions as to whether such restrictions are modified, removed, or remain in force.
(3) Authorities who cancel the classification of information and simultaneously approve the release thereof to the public will notify all concerned as soon as practicable so that confusion will not exist as to whether a compromise has occurred.
27. Marking of Classified Matter:
a. General. After determination of the classification required thereon, classified matter will be marked in accordance with the procedures herein set forth. Persons who act as approving authorities with respect to the issuance of correspondence, publications, plans, reports, messages, or other material which contains classified information, are responsible for insuring that the assigned classification is the proper one and that the document or other material is correctly marked.
(1) Bound Documents. The assigned classification on bound documents, such as books or pamphlets, the pages of which are permanently and securely fastened together, will be conspicuously marked or stamped on the outside of the front cover, on the title page, on the first page, on the back page, and on the outside of the back cover. In each case the markings will be applied to the top and bottom of such pages and covers.
(2) Unbound Documents. The assigned classification on unbound documents such as letters, memoranda, reports, messages, and other similar documents, the pages of which are not permanently and securely fastened together, will be conspicuously marked or stamped at the top and bottom of each page, in such manner that the marking will be clearly visible when the pages are clipped or stapled together.
(3) Charts, Maps, and Drawings: Classified charts, maps, and drawings, including tracings and photomaps, will carry the classification marking under the legend, title block, or scale in such manner that it will be reproduced on all copies made therefrom. Such classification will also be marked at the top and bottom in each instance.
(4) Photographs, Films, and Recordings. Classified photographs, films, and recordings, and their containers, will be conspicuously and appropriately marked with the assigned classification. Whenever practicable, classified photographic negatives will be marked in the same manner as documents referred to in (3) above. Continuous cover aerial reconnaissance and mapping negatives in roll form will be marked with the assigned classification at the beginning and end of each roll. Photographs and reproductions made from classified negatives which do not carry a legend will be marked on the front and back with the assigned classification.
(5) Reproductions. All copies or reproductions of classified material will be appropriately marked or stamped in the same manner as the original thereof.
(6) Group or File of Documents. The classification of the highest classified document in a file or physically connected group of documents will be marked on covers, file folders, or other similar covering, or on communications of transmittal, including indorsements, in accordance with paragraph 25f. A previously assigned classification on a document will not be changed to indicate that a higher classified document has been attached in the same group or file.
c. Materiel. Classified materiel, including products and substances, will be properly marked whenever possible, to indicate the classification, as will their containers, if possible. Items which do not lend themselves to marking will have securely affixed or attached a tag, sticker, or, similar device bearing the appropriate classification marking, or the marking will be placed on their containers. If neither method is practicable, recipients will be specifically notified in writing of the classification of such items.
d. Unclassified Material. Normally, unclassified material will not be marked or stamped "Unclassified" unless it is essential to convey to a recipient of such material that it has been examined specifically with a view to imposing a defense classification and has been determined not to require such classification.
e. Limitations on Reproduction. Each copy of a document containing TOP SECRET information will include a notation thereon or in the text concerning limitations on reproduction as prescribed in paragraph 29b.
f. Additional Marking of Classified Matter. Documents containing classified information furnished authorized persons, in or out of Federal service, other than those of or in the employ of departments and agencies of the Executive Branch of the Federal Government will, in addition to being marked TOP SECRET, SECRET, or CONFIDENTIAL, bear the following notation:
"This material contains information affecting the national defense of the United States within the meaning of the Espionage Laws, Title 18, U. S. C., Sections 793 and 794, the transmission or revelation of which in any manner to an unauthorized person is prohibited by law."
When classified items of materiel or other material which do not lend themselves to marking are furnished to such persons, the latter will be specifically notified in writing of the above notation.
g. Marking of Downgraded, Upgraded, and Declassified Documents:
(1) Classification Markings. Downgraded and upgraded documents and material will be marked or stamped with the new appropriate classification in the same manner as originally classified documents or material, and the old classification markings will be lined through. If the classification is canceled, the classification markings will be lined through. In cases where recipients have been notified in writing of the classification of items, they will be notified of downgrading, upgrading, or declassification action in the same manner. Prints of motion picture film will show downgrading, upgrading, or declassification action on leaders attached between the plain leader and the first title frame.
(2) Copies of Downgraded and Upgraded Documents. All activities and individuals holding copies of downgraded, upgraded, or declassified documents will promptly mark them as appropriate, to include the authority cited, upon receipt of the notices, except as authorized in (3) below.
(3) Bulk Files. When a document has been downgraded, upgraded, or declassified, bulk files or supplies thereof need not be marked as provided in (2) above, until copies are charged out for use. The change or cancellation of classification will be indicated inside the file drawer or other storage container.
28. Information Originated by a Foreign Government or Organization:
a. Classifying. Defense information of a classified nature furnished to the United States by a foreign government or international organization will be assigned a classification which will assure a degree of protection equivalent to or greater than that required by the government or international organization which furnished the information. RESTRICTED material received from such sources will be assigned a CONFIDENTIAL classification and protected in accordance with the provisions of this Regulation applicable to the CONFIDENTIAL category. Where necessary, RESTRICTED material so furnished may be marked by U. S. recipients to show the U. S. and the foreign or international classification, such as "U.S. CONFIDENTIAL - U.K. Restricted" or "U.S. CONFIDENTIAL - NATO Restricted."
b. Changes in Classification. Matter which has been classified by a friendly foreign government or international body or which has been classified by a United States authority solely to accord with conditions imposed by such a government or body may be downgraded or declassified with the consent of the foreign government or international body concerned.
SECTION III - HANDLING AND TRANSMISSION OF CLASSIFIED MATTER
29. Handling and Transmission of TOP SECRET Matter:
(1) The rules established in this Regulation for handling and transmitting information in the TOP SECRET category are based upon the fact that the defense aspect of TOP SECRET information is paramount and takes precedence over operational considerations and administrative convenience.
(2) At the time of signing or otherwise approving any document bearing a TOP SECRET classification, the responsible officer or civilian official will:
(a) Direct the assignment of a lower classification if defense considerations do not support fully the classification of TOP SECRET.
(b) Insure that properly classified TOP SECRET information, wherever severable from lower classified portions, is accorded separate dissemination or distribution on a considerably more selective and limited basis than the balance of the document.
(c) Insure compliance with all applicable provisions of b, c, and d below if the document qualifies for assignment to the TOP SECRET category.
(1) Each copy of a document which contains information classified TOP SECRET will be numbered in series, for accounting purposes and will include a notation or statement substantially in one of the following forms, as appropriate (messages prepared for electrical transmission need not include a statement within the text):
(a) Reproduction of this document, in whole or in part is prohibited except with the permission of the office of origin.
(b) Reproduction of paragraph(s) _________ of this document is prohibited except with the permission of the office of origin.
(c) Reproduction of this message in whole or in part is prohibited without approval of ___________ (insert designated officer; normally the head of the action office). (For incoming messages.)
(2) Normally no more than two carbon copies will be made of correspondence which contains information classified TOP SECRET. One courtesy copy will accompany the original and one record copy will be retained for file. If the correspondence is intended to pass through more than one office or headquarters, additional courtesy copies as necessary will be prepared, numbered, and forwarded with the original.
(3) No more than three clear-text copies should be made within a headquarters of incoming TOP SECRET messages. (An incoming message received in encrypted form becomes a document prepared by the recipient headquarters upon production by such headquarters of a literal plain-text copy of the message.) The commander of each headquarters will determine the number of copies of outgoing TOP SECRET messages that must be made to satisfy internal requirements of his headquarters.
(4) At the time of issuance of a TOP SECRET document, the signature authority will insure that all formal papers of a classified nature relating to the coordination of the document or other aspects of its preparation which require retention will be itemized by the office of origin, assembled into a single file, and forwarded for custody to the official office of record; and that all preliminary drafts, stenographic notes, and other working papers not required for record purposes are destroyed in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 9.
(1) TOP SECRET Information may be reproduced or copied only when absolutely necessary for planning or operational purposes.
(2) The authority that originates a document which contains information classified TOP SECRET will determine the number of copies required initially and whether recipients may reproduce or copy such documents in whole or in part except as otherwise indicated in (3) below.
(3) Nonregistered TOP SECRET documents will not be copied, photographed, or otherwise reproduced in whole or in part without the consent of the originator or higher authority in the same chain of command as the originator. (For instructions concerning registered documents, see section IV.)
(4) When authorized, reproductions of TOP SECRET documents, or parts thereof which are classified TOP SECRET, will show the reproducing office, authority for reproduction, and the number of copies reproduced. In addition the office of origin will be notified of such reproduction and the disposition of each copy.
(1) Special measures will be employed within each headquarters to limit the dissemination of TOP SECRET information, originated, or received, to the absolute minimum. No dissemination or disclosure of TOP SECRET information will be made or authorized by any person without determining beforehand that possession or knowledge of the information by the prospective recipients is absolutely necessary. The number of persons who work on TOP SECRET matters will be kept to a minimum and these persons will be warned individually against disclosing such matters to persons whose official duties do not clearly require knowledge thereof.
(2) Only that portion of TOP SECRET matter necessary to the proper planning and appropriate action of any headquarters or individual will be released to such activity or individual. Items of information intended to be extracted from TOP SECRET documents for further dissemination will be carefully reviewed to determine whether such items may be assigned a classification lower than TOP SECRET.
(3) The dissemination of TOP SECRET information will be effected by direct contact whenever practicable, without transmission of documents.
(4) The authority who receives a TOP SECRET document and determines that information based thereon must be transmitted to subordinates, including subordinate commanders, will prepare separate directives or other appropriate documents, without direct quotation from the original document, for the purpose of furnishing the required information when reproduction or additional distribution of the original document or the pertinent portions thereof is not authorized.
(5) It is mandatory that all persons who have knowledge of TOP SECRET information be identifiable at all times. Originators and recipients of TOP SECRET documents will initiate and maintain a list of every person by name, date, and document title who is afforded access to information contained in each document. Upon transfer of the document from custody of the office concerned, the list will be filed within the office or centrally within the headquarters for a period of at least one year for purposes of future reference.
e. Receipt System and Courier Requirement:
(1) The transmission and custody of each TOP SECRET document or other item must be covered by a receipt system, between headquarters and between offices and individuals within a headquarters. The transmitting office or headquarters will take action as necessary to obtain a receipt signed within the receiving office or headquarters in addition to a receipt signed by the person who carries the material.
(2) Distribution records and receipts will show the copy number of each document transmitted to recipients.
(3) In no circumstances will TOP SECRET matter be transmitted by mail channels. Classified information required by the Federal Bureau of Investigation for operational use by that agency will normally be deemed not to qualify for assignment to the TOP SECRET category, and will be transmitted to that agency in a security category of CONFIDENTIAL or SECRET. When classified information in the TOP SECRET category is transmitted to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for planning purposes, that agency will be advised in writing that in no circumstances will the material be transmitted by mail channels.
f. TOP SECRET Control Officers:
(1) Commanders of headquarters that initiate or receive TOP SECRET information will appoint certain officials (commissioned officers, warrant officers, or key civilian personnel to be known as TOP SECRET control officers to receive, maintain accountability register of, and dispatch all TOP SECRET material.
(2) TOP SECRET control officers will open and deliver TOP SECRET material to the individuals who must see and work on it. TOP SECRET matter which is addressed on the inner envelope to an individual by name will be delivered unopened to such addressee. Prior to being opened, each cover will be carefully inspected and any evidence of tampering will be reported promptly to the dispatching activity, which will initiate an investigation. When the inner cover is opened, the receipt found therein will be dated, signed, and returned to the sender. Any discrepancy between the receipt and the contents will be reported promptly to the dispatching activity, which will accomplish necessary corrective action.
g. Preparation for Transmission:
(1) Within a Headquarters. Subject to the applicable provisions of a through f above, the commander of each headquarters will provide for the security of TOP SECRET matter prepared for transmission between offices within a headquarters in such manner as to insure a degree of security equivalent to that outlined for preparation for transmission outside a headquarters.
(2) Outside a Headquarters. TOP SECRET material to be transmitted outside a headquarters will be enclosed in opaque inner and outer covers. Written material will be protected from direct contact, with the inner cover by a cover sheet or by folding inward. The inner cover will be a sealed wrapper or envelope plainly marked with the assigned classification and address. It will contain a receipt form which identifies the address or, the addressee, and the contents by unclassified or short title. The outer cover will be addressed, return-addressed, and carefully sealed with no markings or notations to indicate the classification of its contents. If the outer cover is not sufficiently opaque to prevent the classification markings on the inner cover from becoming visible, the inner cover will be wrapped with sufficient paper to conceal the markings.
(1) Within a Headquarters. Subject to the provisions of a through f above, the commander of each headquarters will provide for the security of TOP SECRET matter transmitted between offices within a headquarters in such a manner as to insure a degree of security equivalent to that outlined for transmission outside a headquarters.
(2) Outside a Headquarters:
(a) TOP SECRET matter will be transmitted outside a headquarters by a courier transfer officer of the Armed Forces Courier Service; by designated couriers of the Armed Forces Courier Service only when travel is by U. S. military aircraft; by cleared commissioned officers, warrant officers or key civilian employees specifically designated by the originating activity (normally, a pilot or co-pilot will not be designated as a courier since the operation of the aircraft and action in the event of an emergency make such assignment impracticable); by specifically designated civilian couriers, i.e., State Department or other high Government officials, etc.; or by accompanied State Department diplomatic pouch.
(b) Accompanied State Department diplomatic pouch will be used exclusively for transmission of TOP SECRET matter through or within a neutral country and any other foreign country where the material would be subject to customs inspection or other examination or inspection.
(c) In all cases where TOP SECRET matter is to be transmitted via State Department channels, the originating office will place in the lower left-hand portion of the front of the outer cover the following routing certificate, which will be typewritten and pasted on or applied by rubber stamp or other legible means, and marked for transmission "By Courier" and "Transmission via officially designated military officer courier is authorized provided exemption is assured":
30. Handling and Transmission of SECRET and CONFIDENTIAL Matter:
(1) The rules established by this Regulation for handling and transmitting information in the SECRET category are based on the fact that it is defense information the unauthorized disclosure of which could result in serious damage to the Nation. At the time of issuance of any document bearing a SECRET classification, the responsible officer or civilian official (signature authority) will:
(a) Direct the assignment of a lower classification if defense considerations do not support fully the classification of SECRET.
(b) Insure that all formal papers of a classified nature relating to the coordination of the document or other aspects of its preparation which require retention are itemized, assembled into a single file, and forwarded for custody to the official office of record; and that all preliminary drafts, stenographic notes, and other working papers not required for record purposes are destroyed in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 9.
(2) The rules established in this Regulation for handling and transmitting information in the CONFIDENTIAL category are based on the fact that it is defense information the unauthorized disclosure of which could be prejudicial to the defense interests of the Nation. At the time of signing or otherwise approving any document bearing a CONFIDENTIAL classification, the responsible officer or civilian official will direct the cancellation of the classification if defense considerations do not support the classification of CONFIDENTIAL.
(3) The number of SECRET and CONFIDENTIAL documents originated as well as the number of copies thereof produced will be severely limited and kept to a minimum to decrease the risk of compromise of the information contained in such documents.
(4) Measures will be employed within each headquarters to limit the dissemination of SECRET and CONFIDENTIAL information, originated, or received, to a minimum. No dissemination or disclosure of SECRET or CONFIDENTIAL information will be made or authorized by any person without determining beforehand that possession or knowledge of the information by the prospective recipient is necessary. The number of persons who work on SECRET and CONFIDENTIAL matters will be kept to a minimum and these persons will be warned against disclosing such matters to persons whose official duties do not require knowledge thereof.
(5) The transmission and custody of each SECRET document or other item must be covered by a receipt system between headquarters. The transmitting office or headquarters will take action as necessary to obtain a receipt signed within the receiving headquarters. DD Form 646, "Classified Document Receipt" (replacing WDAGO Form 996, which may be used), is available for this purpose when SECRET material is transmitted outside a headquarters, but use of a similar form is authorized to satisfy requirements in special circumstances. A receipt is required for CONFIDENTIAL registered material. Other CONFIDENTIAL material will require a receipt only if the sender deems it necessary.
b. Preparation for Transmission:
(1) Within a Headquarters. Subject to the applicable provisions of a above, the commander of each headquarters will provide for the security of SECRET and CONFIDENTIAL matter prepared for transmission between offices within a headquarters in such manner as to insure a degree of security equivalent to that outlined for preparation for transmission outside a headquarters.
(2) Outside a Headquarters. SECRET and CONFIDENTIAL material to be transmitted outside a headquarters will be enclosed in opaque inner and outer covers. Written material will be protected from direct contact with the inner cover by a cover sheet or by folding inward. The inner cover will be a sealed wrapper or envelope plainly marked with the assigned classification and address. When required, it will contain a receipt form which identifies the addressor, the addressee, and the contents, by unclassified or short title. The outer cover will be addressed, return–addressed, and carefully sealed with no markings or notations to indicate the classification of its contents. If the outer cover is not sufficiently opaque to prevent the classification markings on the inner cover from becoming visible, the inner cover will be wrapped with sufficient paper to conceal the markings. Particular care will be exercised, however, to insure that wrapped or packaged mail matter is sufficiently secure to prevent damage and possible exposure of classified information while in transit.
c. Receipt Within a Headquarters:
(1) Only the addressee or an especially selected representative specifically designated by him will open inner covers or envelopes marked SECRET or CONFIDENTIAL. The receipt form will be dated, signed by the addressee or his authorized representative, and promptly returned to the sender.
(2) Before a sealed package or envelope containing SECRET or CONFIDENTIAL matter is opened, the seals and wrappers will be carefully inspected to determine whether there has been any tampering. If evidence of tampering is noted, the facts will be reported immediately to the dispatching activity, which will initiate an investigation.
d. Transmission Within a Headquarters. Subject to the provisions of a above, the commander of each headquarters will provide for the security of interoffice transmission of SECRET and CONFIDENTIAL matter in such manner is to insure a degree of security equivalent to that outlined for transmission outside a headquarters.
e. Transmission Outside a Headquarters:
(1) Within Continental United States. SECRET and CONFIDENTIAL matter, except cryptomaterial, will be transmitted within the continental United States by one of the following means (see paragraph 34 regarding cryptomaterial):
(a) United States registered mail, including registered air mail.
(b) Railway Express Agency, Inc., under armed surveillance protective service; or by protected commercial air express under billing which assures the highest degree of protective handling.
(c) Specifically designated and cleared military personnel or civilian employees.
(d) Specifically designated officials or couriers of other United States Government agencies.
(e) Military aircraft of the United States, provided that the material is entrusted to an officer or other reliable member of the crew on such aircraft with instructions regarding its security and delivery. (Normally a pilot or co-pilot will not be designated to act as a courier.)
(f) A designated courier of the Armed Forces Courier Service for transmission of registered material; and communication matter incapable of electronic transmission because of circuit outage, certified by commanders concerned as official business and requiring urgency of the highest priority with respect to transmission.
(2) Outside the Continental United States. SECRET and CONFIDENTIAL matter, except cryptomaterial (see paragraph 34), will be transmitted from points inside the continental United States to points outside the continental United States and vice versa, and between points outside the continental United States, in the same manner as prescribed for transmission of TOP SECRET matter (including the Armed Forces Courier Service only as hereinafter set forth), or by any of the following means:
(a ) United States Post Office, registered mail, including registered air mail, through Army, Navy, or Air Force postal facilities, provided that the material does not at any time pass out of United States Government control and does not pass through a foreign postal system. (SECRET and CONFIDENTIAL may, however, be transmitted between United States Government and/or Canadian Government installations in the continental United States, Canada, and Alaska by United States and Canadian registered mail receipt.)
(b) State Department diplomatic pouch. The routing certificate referred to in paragraph 29h(2)(c) is required. It will be marked "By Courier" and "Eligible for transmission as United States registered mail * * *," except that accompanied diplomatic pouch (courier) will be used exclusively for transmission through or within neutral countries and any other foreign country where the material would be subject to customs or inspection or other examination or inspection.
(c) Specifically designated and cleared noncommissioned officers, for transmission within areas of commands located outside the continental United States.
(d) Commanders or masters of vessels of United States registry.
(e) Military aircraft of the United States, as authorized in (1)(e) above.
(f) A designated courier of the Armed Forces Courier Service for transmission of registered material; and communication matter incapable of electronic transmission because of circuit outage, certified by commanders concerned as official business and requiring urgency of the highest priority with respect to transmission.
a. All classified messages to be transmitted by electrical means will be encrypted except that SECRET and CONFIDENTIAL messages may be transmitted as permitted in b below, or over communications circuits which have been approved for such transmission by a specifically designated commander or his representative. In no circumstances will TOP SECRET messages be transmitted in the clear by electrical means.
b. In combat or combat-related operations, simulated or actual, upon authorization by the commander or his authorized representative, messages of any classification except TOP SECRET may be transmitted in the clear over any nonapproved wire circuit or any radio channel, when time cannot be spared for encryption and the information to be transmitted cannot be acted upon by the enemy in time to influence the situation in question. Such messages will be marked "SEND IN CLEAR" over the signature of the commander or his authorized representative.
32. Special Procedure for Safeguarding From Disclosure to Foreign Nationals:
a. Whenever originators or recipients of classified documents determine that information is contained therein which should he withheld from foreign nationals, and the anticipated distribution, transmission, or handling is such that the documents will be liable to inadvertent disclosure to foreign nationals, originators or recipients should attach special handling notices to the documents or incorporate special instructions. In a conspicuous manner thereon as follows:
SPECIAL HANDLING REQUIRED
b. The abbreviation "NOFORN" is authorized for insertion in the text of classified messages to warn addressees that the information contained in the message requires the special handling referred to in a above.
c. All classified documents and messages addressed to a United States authority stationed at an allied headquarters or similar office under international control and staffed with representatives from the United States and one or more other governments will bear the appropriate special handling notice, or will include or have attached thereto specific instructions providing for the disclosure to foreign nationals of the information involved when such disclosure is authorized in accordance with paragraph 6d.
d. Documents and messages requiring special handling may also contain instructions providing for the release to foreign nationals of indicated elements of information, or all of the information upon the passage of a named event or date, when such release is authorized in accordance with paragraph 6d.
e. In no circumstances will matter not bearing special handling instructions be released or disclosed to any foreign national without proper authorization in accordance with policies prescribed by the Department of the Air Force. (See paragraph 6d.) Special handling instructions will be used solely to indicate to holders and other handling personnel that the documents involved already have been reviewed by the office of origin or other responsible authority and that disclosure to foreign nationals is not .authorized.
33. Designation and Instruction of Couriers and Messengers:
a. Designation. The selection and designation of persons to act as couriers or messengers for the transmission of classified information in accordance with the provisions of this Regulation will be limited to persons known to be reliable and who can be depended upon to accord the material involved the proper degree of protection.
b. Instruction. Commanders who direct or authorize the transmission of classified matter by individuals will insure that such individuals are properly instructed concerning its safeguarding and delivery. (For instructions regarding emergency destruction in transit, see paragraph 9i(2).)
c. Exemption from U. S. Customs Inspection. For instructions concerning the designation of couriers and exemption of official matter from U. S. Customs inspection, see AFR 205-75.
34. Transmission and Receipt of Cryptomaterial:
a. Preparation for Transmission. All classified cryptomaterial will be double-wrapped. The inner wrapper will be sealed, addressed to the attention of the cryptosecurity officer or the custodian of cryptomaterial, and marked with the appropriate classification. The outer wrapper will be sealed and addressed but not marked with any classification; it will not indicate the contents of the package nor the fact that the package is for the attention of the cryptosecurity officer or the custodian of cryptomaterial. A serial number will be placed on each package or envelope to facilitate handling, identification, and receipting.
b. Receipt System. Packages containing cryptomaterial will be covered by a receipt system during transmission. The receipt will identify the package by package number and will not give any indication of the contents.
c. Means of Transmission:
(1) Between points within the continental United States, SECRET or CONFIDENTIAL cryptomaterial will be transmitted by the Armed Forces Courier Service, officially designated and cleared officer couriers (commissioned or warrant), or registered mail, including registered air mail. When transmitted by registered mail, mail pouches with special rotary locks will be used whenever possible.
(2) Transmission of SECRET or CONFIDENTIAL cryptomaterial from points within the continental United States to points outside the continental United States and vice versa, and between points outside the continental United States will be only by the Armed Forces Courier Service, officially designated and cleared officer couriers (commissioned or warrant), or by accompanied (courier) State Department diplomatic pouch. (See paragraph 29h(2) (b) and (c).) The routing certificate will not be marked "Eligible for transmission as United States registered mail ***.")
(a) The Armed Forces Courier Service will be used whenever practicable except for transmission through or within neutral countries or any other foreign country where the material would be subject to customs or other inspection or examination.
(b) Officers designated as official couriers will not be assigned other duties during the trip and will deliver the cryptomaterial before resuming any other duties. They will be instructed by the transmitting officer in the proper method of destroying the material in an emergency, and advised that the material must be continuously guarded until delivered.
(3) Registered cipher machines will be transmitted only in the custody of an armed officer guard (commissioned or warrant) or by accompanied State Department diplomatic pouch (courier) regardless of the type of transportation used, and will be handled in accordance with special instructions issued by the Department of the Air Force.
d. Action Upon Receipt of Cryptomaterial:
(1) Inner covers or envelopes will be delivered to the addressee unopened. The cryptosecurity officer or the custodian of cryptomaterial will date and sign the receipt form and return it promptly to the sender.
(2) Packages of registered cryptomaterial will be opened, checked, and the material placed in storage immediately upon arrival at a headquarters. Before each package is opened, it will be inspected carefully for any evidence of tampering. If any evidence of tampering is noted, the facts will be reported immediately to the issuing office which will initiate an investigation without delay. Pending action by the investigating authority, the package will remain in the exact state as when the evidence of tampering was discovered, and any handling will be held to the absolute minimum consistent with providing for the safeguarding of the package.
35. Protection of Shipments (Except Cryptomaterial) via Commercial Carriers Within United States or Its Possessions:
a. Selection of Shipping Method. Disclosure of information pertaining to classified materiel will be prevented during transportation within the United States or its possessions by one of the following methods of shipment, to be determined by the commander authorizing its movement. Commanders responsible for authorizing the shipment of classified materiel by one of the methods set forth below will insure that the consignee is notified sufficiently in advance of arrival of the shipment at its destination so that proper protection may be accorded the materiel upon delivery.
b. Protection of Shipments. If size and quantity permit, classified materiel may be handled and transmitted in the same manner as provided in this Regulation for similarly classified documents. However, in cases where materiel is of such size or quantity as to create suspicion of its character and entail additional security risk when transported in the same manner as documents, one of the methods set forth below will he used. Whenever practicable, classified material will be double wrapped.
c. Railway Express Service Protected by Carrier's Guards. SECRET or CONFIDENTIAL shipments may be shipped as set forth below via Railway Express Agency, Incorporated, after advance arrangements have been made in accordance with the provisions of AFR 75-2 for carrier to guard the materiel from the time it leaves the hands of consignor until delivered to consignee. The protective service to be chosen for SECRET and CONFIDENTIAL shipments will be the armed surveillance service described in paragraph 20a(1) (b), AFR 75-2, 23 June 1952.
d. Ordinary Railway Express Service Protected by Military Guards. This method of shipment may be chosen for TOP SECRET, SECRET or CONFIDENTIAL materiel. The number of guards detailed to protect the shipment will be a minimum consistent with security requirements. Specific instructions relating to the furnishing of orders to guards, the issuance of additional orders necessary to insure the safety of the shipment, and transportation of guards, are published in paragraph 18, AFR 75-2.
e. Air Freight or Air Express via Commercial Air Lines Protected by Military Guards. The provisions of d above will govern generally.
f. Rail Freight Service Protected by Military Guards. Classified materiel may be shipped by rail freight service under the protection of military guards. (See paragraph 18, AFR 75-2, concerning guards for safeguarding shipments.)
g. Ordinary Motor Truck Freight Protected by Military Guards. The principles of f above will govern.
h. Water Freight Service Protected by Military Guards. The principles of paragraph 18, AFR 75-2, will govern. When vessels are used which have arrangements for carrying passengers, transportation requests will be issued. When vessels are used which do not have arrangements for carrying public passengers, carriage free or at a reasonable charge, appropriate arrangements for meals will be negotiated.
i. Straight or Mixed Troop Trains. Classified materiel accompanying troops will be adequately guarded by organization personnel. (See also paragraph 18h, AFR 75-2.)
j. Guards. Guards sufficiently armed will be provided in accordance with paragraph 18, AFR 75-2. When possible, where concealment of the arm is not necessary, submachine guns, automatic rifles, or rifles should be provided in preference to pistols.
k. Shipment of CONFIDENTIAL Materiel Without Guard. Shipments of CONFIDENTIAL materiel may, at the discretion of the activity authorizing its movement, be shipped within the United States or its possessions by one of the following methods, without guard:
(1) Air Express or Air Freight via commercial air lines, provided that a hand-to-hand signature service is furnished by the carrier from point of origin of shipment to destination, and provided further that the carrier provides appropriate security measures to protect the shipment at all times, including periods that it is grounded in transit.
(2) Sealed commercial truck traveling under its own motive power.
(3.) Rail freight open car, provided that trucks or crates containing the equipment, are suitably locked, and/or sealed and locked, and/or sealed to the car. In addition, the equipment will be protected from external view and injury from normal hazards in shipping.
36. Protection of Shipments Outside the United States. Disclosure of information pertaining to classified materiel will be prevented during transmission outside the United States or its possessions by a method of shipment by which the materiel will be under direct supervision and control of authorized personnel at all times, and will not be subject to United States or foreign customs inspection or other examination in transit. Special care will be exercised to insure that classified information relating to the items of materiel or to the shipment will not be disclosed to unauthorized personnel. Additional instructions pertaining to unit movements and movement of supplies are contained in Section VIII.
37. Transmission of Classified Files:
a. Shipments of classified files to records depots and records depositories will be made as follows:
(1) When the quantity of TOP SECRET, SECRET, or CONFIDENTIAL documents remaining after downgrading is small, the documents will be transmitted under separate cover as provided elsewhere in this Regulation for the transmission of individual documents. A charge-out sheet will be placed in the folder which contained the document, and the document will be properly identified as to the file and folder from which extracted prior to transmission.
(2) When the quantity of TOP SECRET, SECRET, or CONFIDENTIAL documents which cannot be downgraded makes the above procedure impracticable, the files in which the documents are maintained will be packed in the shipping boxes prescribed in AFM 181-5, wrapped, sealed, and securely fastened as prescribed therein. The outside of the box will contain no indication of the classified character of the files. The boxes will be shipped under security regulations applicable to bulk shipments of classified materiel, except that TOP SECRET and cryptographic documents and messages in all cases will be accompanied by an officer courier in addition to armed guards. All TOP SECRET and SECRET documents will be individually listed on AF Form 693 or other suitable format providing for a listing.
b. The above procedures may be employed in transmitting current bulk files when a unit is transferred to another station.